Catholic missionaries wanted to prevent pagans from worshipping other gods, so they suppressed the use of mushrooms. Mostly because the Spanish Catholics believed mushrooms allowed Aztecs to communicate with devils. Probably a translation error. In converting people to Catholicism, the Spanish influenced people to switch from shrooms to eating symbolic Jesus-flesh-wafers.

From the Shroomery (an unbiased source, obviously):

There are no known long term physical effects from ingestion of mushrooms containing psilocybin and psilocin.

Mushrooms (the magic variety) are fungi that, after consumption, cause a person to experience illusions through the senses. Common hallucinogens include psilocybe cubensis, psilocybe subaeruginascens, and amanita muscaria. The active chemicals in psilocybin mushrooms are psilocybin and psilocin, while the active chemical in the amanita muscaria is muscimol. These fungi are considered powerful hallucinogens capable of creating life-altering mental experiences.

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